Element Queries

When building responsive sites, especially style and component guide driven responsive sites, eventually the idea of "why can't we just query our element instead of the viewport" comes up. Sometimes the question is formed as "working around the lack of element queries", sometimes as "media queries are a hack", but no matter how it's phrased, the question always makes the assumption that getting native element queries is a foregone certainty and seem to miss the fundamental issue with element queries: they can't, really, be implemented natively.

Tab Atkins has a great writeup on the issues of element queries. There are circularity issues in both styling declaration (setting width: 400px at a min-width: 450px for instance) and in needing to get properties of elements based on the content placed inside of it (think inline elements, just about any height query). Add on top of this the need for your page to be rendered by the browser in order for the proper sizes to be calculated and then, potentially, rerendered again and, potentially, rerendered again, ad nauseam. In fact, the only real solution that Tab and Boris Zbarsky, a hacker for Mozilla, could come up with was, essentially, an iframe-like element whose properties (such as width and height) are treated in the DOM like normal elements (and thus can't be effected by element queries) with elements inside being able to query the width of that element. But that gets really ugly, is likewise slow, and they really only like the solution if it can be detected from the markup. Overall, not particularly good.

That all being said, as I've been working on Style Prototypes, I really wanted element queries for the component guide in order to create truly reusable component guides. Understanding the inherent issues with element queries, I decided I wanted to write a little JavaScript library to try and provide some form of limited element queries like functionality, and so I built eq.js

eq.js

eq.js is a tiny little stand-alone JavaScript library (2.26KB minified, 1002B gzipped) that provides element query-like functionality for your projects. Unlike other JavaScript libraries that look to provide similar functionality, eq.js doesn't require jQuery or Sizzle to work, making its weight the only added weight to the page, and is designed to be blazing fast, utilizing techniques to reduce layout thrashing and increase perceived render speed such as grouping reads and writes together and firing the reads and writes through requestAnimationFrame. The demo site contains the performance benchmark page that was used to test performance, using more than 2,200 nodes, each requiring a query and applying a new set of styling. This benchmark is able to query all of the nodes and apply the correct attribute in ~35ms.

Created with a component guide in mind, it reduces many of the common pitfalls of element queries by reducing what you can query and when it gets queried down to a single item and provides a single interface for working with that query. eq.js will only query min-width as presented in a single data attribute, will only query it on unload and onresize, and allows you to access the queried min-width through a single attribute. It also provides an interface to allow users to fire a query for any selected nodes, allowing you to trigger queries on an as-needed basis. Usage is fairly easy, simply add a data-eq-pts attribute with key: value pairs of desired keywords and min-width values you'd like to use, each separated by a comma ,.

<div class='component' data-eq-pts="small: 400, medium: 600, large: 900">
  <h1>Hello World</h1>
</div>

When the correct size is available, a data-eq-state attribute will be added to the component with the key for the given min-width. This makes styling easy:

.container {
  border: 2px solid red;
  background-color: rgba(red, .25);

  &[data-eq-state="small"] {
    border-color: green;
    background-color: rgba(green .25);
  }

  &[data-eq-state="medium"] {
    border-color: orange;
    background-color: rgba(orange, .25);
  }

  &[data-eq-state="large"] {
    border-color: blue;
    background-color: rgba(blue, .25);
  }
}

Installing and using eq.js is fairly easy. You can either download a release or install it through Bower

bower install eq.js --save

When adding eq.js to your site, make sure you load it in the <head> so that it's ready and available to for when onload is available as it directly affects styling on the page.

Hope you enjoy!